When Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement ("TAVR") was first introduced in 2004, it was a revolution in heart surgery, providing an alternative to open-heart surgery.  The process was minimally-invasive and resulted in more rapid-recovery and lower operating risk.


However, TAVR poses other challenges:

1) It requires large bore access (which is unobtainable in 25% of patients)

2) Even when access is obtainable, the risks of limb ischemia limit the technical applicability of current hardware.

3) TAVR is only available in highly specialized centers due to complexity of access.